Middle East's oil exporters rushed to raise taxes and cut spending earlier this year, but these measures were insufficient to contain the damage.
The major oil producers in the Gulf then rushed to raise debt via sovereign and corporate debt issuance. Bond issues in the region have already hit US$100 billion, exceeding the previous record amount of bonds issued in 2019.
Thanks to low-interest rates and high appetite from investors, the petrostates are binging on debt raising to try to fill the widening gaps in their balance sheets that oil prices well below their fiscal break-evens leave.
Saudi Aramco Taps International Debt Market Again
Aramco is tapping the international U.S.-denominated bond market for the second time in two years, after last year's US$12 billion bond issue in its first international issuance, for which it had received more than US$100 billion in orders.
Saudi Aramco prefers to considerably increase its debt to cope with the oil price collapse than to touch its massive annual dividend of US$75 billion, the overwhelming majority of which goes to its largest shareholder with 98 percent, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.