By formally announcing quantitative easing (QE) infinity on March 23, 2020, the Federal Reserve (Fed) is using its entire arsenal of monetary stimulus. Unlimited purchases of Treasury securities and mortgage-backed securities for an indefinite period is far more dramatic than anything they did in 2008. The Fed also revived other financial crisis programs like the Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF) and created a new special purpose vehicle (SPV), allowing them to buy investment-grade corporate bonds and related ETF's. The purpose of these unprecedented actions is to unfreeze the credit markets, stem financial market losses, and provide some ballast to the economy.
Most investors seem unable to grasp why the Fed's actions have been, thus far, ineffective. In this article, we explain why today is different from the past. The Fed's current predicament is unique as they have never been totally up against the wall of zero-bound interest rates heading into a crisis. Their remaining tools become more controversial and more limited with the Fed Funds rate at zero. Our objective is to assess when the monetary medicine might begin to work and share our thoughts about what is currently impeding it.
All Money is Lent in Existence.
That sentence may be the most crucial concept to understand if you are to make sense of the Fed's actions and assess their effectiveness.
Under the traditional fractional reserve banking system run by the U.S. and most other countries, money is "created" via loans. Here is a simple example:
John deposits a thousand dollars into his bank
The bank is allowed to lend 90% of their deposits (keeping 10% in "reserves")
Anne borrows $900 from the same bank and buys a widget from Tommy
Tommy then deposits $900 into his checking account at the same bank
The bank then lends to someone who needs $810 and they spend that money, etc…