Following the attacks of September 11th, Congress passed the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA), creating the Transportation Security Agency (TSA). The TSA replaced private security screening companies with one government agency. Since then, air travelers have bowed to pat downs, bans on water bottles and other inconvenient, intrusive procedures as the "new normal" at our nation's airports. But does any of this make us safer?
Security Theater and the TSA
Security expert Bruce Schneier coined the term "security theater" to describe some of the TSA's procedures and screening practices. Security theater provides the appearance of enhanced security without actually making anyone more secure.
Since 9/11, the TSA has implemented new screening procedures on an almost constant basis. The structural problem with these new screening procedures is two-fold. First, these procedures are almost always in response to past threats, not in anticipation of future threats. Second, average Americans suffer the consequences for years to come in the form of ever-increasing screening procedures and lost time.
Sadly, the TSA's accumulated procedures and screening practices are actually causing more American deaths. Cornell University researchers found decreased air travel after 9/11 led to an extra 242 road fatalities per month. In all, the researchers estimate that 1,200 people died as a result of decreased air travel. In 2007, the Cornell researchers studied TSA screening procedures implemented in 2002, and found that they decreased air travel by 6% – leading to an additional 129 road fatalities in the last three months of 2002. In terms of casualties, that's the same as blowing up a fully loaded Boeing 737.
The TSA's Security Theater Timeline
There have been significant and numerous changes in the TSA's security theater since 9/11. Here are some of the highlights and lowlights:
September 12, 2001: During the months after 9/11, National Guard troops are posted at the nation's airports. Their guns are empty.
November 19, 2001: President Bush signs the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA), replacing private security screening with the Transportation Security Administration (TSA).
November 22, 2001: British national Richard Reid tries to blow up a Paris-Miami flight using explosives hidden in his shoes. The TSA institutes a random shoe-screening policy.
April 2002: The TSA deploys 6,000 explosive trace detection machines, or "puffers," at all American airports. Fewer than 100 machines are deployed and the plan is scrapped. The total cost of the project is more than $30 million.
September 2004: The TSA orders all jackets and belts removed and X-rayed. Visitors banned from gate area.
March 31, 2005: TSA adds all lighters to its list of prohibited items.
December 2005: In response to the Madrid train bombings the year before, the TSA starts the Visible Intermodal Prevention and Response (VIPR) program to secure America's transportation infrastructure beyond airports.
August 10, 2006: All passengers now required to remove shoes during security screening.
August 10, 2006: In response to a foiled plot using liquid explosives in Britain, the TSA adds all liquids, gels and aerosols to its list of prohibited items.