It will use phased array antennas for up and downlinks and laser communication between
satellites to provide global low-latency high bandwidth coverage.
Mark Handley, University College London built a simulator based on public details from the FCC
filings to understand the latency properties of the network.
They evaluate how to use the laser links to provide a network and look at the problem of routing on this network. They conclude the SpaceX Starlink network can provide lower latency communications than any possible terrestrial optical fiber network for communications over distances greater than about 3000 kilometers.