Beijing regards Taiwan as part of its own territory awaiting reunification with China and any move implying independence for the island would anger Chinese leaders.
China's Foreign Minister Wang Yi on Saturday denounced the contact a "ploy by the Taiwan side that simply cannot change the One China framework."
The Foreign Ministry in Beijing later said it had lodged "stern representations" with the US and urged it to handle the Taiwan issue with caution to avoid any disturbances in ties.
"We urge the relevant parties in the US to abide by the commitment to the One China policy," the statement said, calling Taiwan an inalienable part of China's territory.
According to Trump's office, the US president-elect and Tsai underlined "the close economic, political and security ties" between Taiwan and the US in their talks.